This chapter is newly added to the Plastic Atlas Japan Special Edition プラスチック・アトラス アジア［日本語特別版］. From the “economic miracle” period up to the present, Japan has built an excellent system for efficiently collecting and recycling recyclable waste. Yet, recycling does not constitute a definitive solution. Rather, it is important to lower the amount of resource use by turning to reducing and reusing. These considerations show that there is still much work to be done to cut down on plastic usage through reusing and recycling. Moreover, Japan needs to rebuild the circulation system for its resources, including plastics, since traditional resource circulation systems may stop functioning in future due to Japan’s shrinking and aging population. Efforts to systematically address this issue are ongoing in Japan, which aspires to adapt to changing socio-economic circumstances, improve continuously its 3Rs policies, and build an advanced circular society.