Chemicals and Waste

Sixth ASEAN State of the Environment Report所収
Chapter: 7
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• As ASEAN increasingly transitions away from its agrarian traditions and becomes a core part
of the global supply chain, improved environmental management of chemicals and waste is
• Manufacturing is now a major contributor to AMS' gross domestic product (GDP) and exports
but too many outdated factories in some developing ASEAN countries nations produce or
use hazardous chemicals that harm local communities. The chemical industry needs a new
paradigm to contribute to environmentally sustainable development.
• Outdated, unsustainable smokestack industries and end-of-pipe pollution controls need to be
replaced with cleaner, more efficient production technology.
• Agricultural chemicals, such as pesticides and herbicides, are also dangerous to the
environment, farm workers and consumers of the region’s fruits and vegetables.
• The ASEAN region spends too little on research and development (R&D) and therefore is not
prepared to manage the risks of the wide range of new chemicals that are being released to the
• Plastic waste generation keeps increasing with industrialization and the increasing adoption
of high material consumption lifestyles. There are growing concerns in AMS on marine plastic
litter and microplastic related pollution and their impacts. However, evidence-based responses
require standardized monitoring procedures and capacity building.
• The ASEAN Joint Declaration on Hazardous Chemicals and Waste Management (2017) needs
to be supported by increased funding, R&D, and international support.
• Gradually, the key tools of environmental management of chemicals and waste are being
implemented in AMS, but much greater efforts are needed regarding source and ambient
monitoring, public awareness, compliance, and enforcement.
• Chemicals and waste management is a cross-cutting issue relevant to circular economy,
extended producer responsibility (EPR), cities, climate change, biodiversity, water, and
environmental education, so it needs to be considered in a holistic and integrated manner.
• Stronger capacities (financial, institutional, technical resources) are needed for political
prioritization and awareness building, setting policies, regulations, strategies, and action plans
to achieve sustainable waste and chemicals management as well as control of transboundary
• Much greater efforts are needed to implement existing policies and regulations, on chemicals
and waste, including compliance and enforcement as well as source and ambient monitoring,
and promoting public awareness
• Regional cooperation should be expanded, and regional action plans should be developed on
chemicals and waste, including plastic, using a lifecycle approach.
• Measures to strengthen environmentally sound management of chemicals and waste can be
important sources of green jobs in government and the private sector.
• Implementation of SDG 12 on sustainable consumption and production would especially
improve the management of chemicals and waste.