Despite major investments in rural development, urbanization is an irreversible trend. In the wake of rapid urbanization, international cooperation has become increasingly important to support the building of local capacity to address environmental concerns. Inter-city cooperation is a recent trend in this regard. This paper discusses the major concepts that form the basis for inter-city cooperation to facilitate local capacity building, with reference to the Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment. The paper also briefly outlines selected inter-city cooperation programs, highlighting the new approaches of international cooperation in urban environmental management.
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