NH3-CO2 brine system for refrigeration at cold storages and seafood processing plants in India


The Government of India has set targets to reduce 85% of the use of Hydrofluoro Carbons (HFC) by 2047 (over the 2024-2026 average levels). Based on onsite visits to randomly selected seafood processing plants and cold storages in Andhra Pradesh State, India, the authors found that more than 70% of them use reciprocating compressors based on HFC (R404a) refrigerant and are not aware that HFC has to be phased out.
This paper is addressed to seafood processing plants and cold storage owners, in India, who are currently using HFCs based refrigeration systems. It proposes to them to consider shifting to use the NH3-CO2 brine system by highlighting its safety, energy efficiency, and cost-saving aspects based on a feasibility study conducted at cold storage located in Andhra Pradesh State, India.
The feasibility study revealed that the proposed NH3-CO2 brine system could give better performance than R404a based refrigeration system at all loads. For instance, at maximum loading of 201.6 kW, the energy-savings at 60%, 80%, and 100% loads are 24.6%, 30.24%, and 29.08% respectively. Consequently, the CO2 emission reduction ranges from 119 ~ 241 tCO2/year and the cost-saving ranges from 9 Million ~ 18 Million Rs/year, which makes the payback period within four years, assuming the localization of its critical components in India.
Besides, the paper introduces a comprehensive framework of partnership that could be considered to adopt the proposed NH3-CO2 secondary system widely in India.