Promoting CO2 water source heat pumps in Indian industrial sector


The electric CO2 water source heat pumps (EHP) generate hot water and cold water simultaneously using the trans-critical cycle of the natural refrigerant CO2. Since their introduction in 2001, EHP were regarded as the next generation of low carbon technologies. The results from piloting EHP at two diary plants, one in Anand, Gujarat and other in Chandigarh, Punjab in India, by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) and The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) revealed that a potential of 30-50% primary energy saving is possible depending upon the unit level existing scenario. Consequently, a potential CO2 emission reduction up to 180 tons/year.
On impact analysis of installing EHP of similar capacity at fifty (50) dairy plants in both the states of Gujarat and Punjab, the authors found that the replications could result in equivalent primary energy saving of 952 toe/year, and a reduction in CO2 emissions of 3,128 ton/year.
EHP are ideal not only for dairy industries but also for applications that require both hot water and cold water regularly; therefore, significant potential exists for implementing them in the Indian Industrial sector. To tap such potential, the authors call for addressing three types of barriers which were observed: 1) High initial investment cost; 2) Lack of awareness about EHP, and 3) Limited technical capacity on how to operate and maintain EHP.
To overcome the financial barriers, the authors recommend the use of existing financial schemes, including the financing under the credit scheme initiated by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Small Industries Development Bank in India (SIDBI). To overcome the lack of awareness and to develop the technical capacities regarding EHP, the authors recommend the use of the Japan-India Technology Matchmaking Platform, which was initiated to promote Japanese Low carbon technologies in India.