This paper examines the impact of the dike systems on river flows in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD). The study combined a hydrological
change index method and the Mann–Kendall test to assess the temporal dynamics of both discharge and water levels along the main rivers of
the VMD. Results highlight that the system of rivers and canals helps facilitate waterway traffic and drainage during the flood season. However,
the low elevation of the delta has created conditions suitable for saline water to increasingly penetrate upstream during the dry season.
Observed changes in the hydrological indicators at the upstream stations of Tan Chau (Mekong River) and Chau Doc (Bassac River) are not
only due to the dike system but also upstream alterations to the flow regime. More research is needed to consider the various drivers of flowregime
change associated with natural and human activities both inside and outside of the study area.