Assessing the Impact of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami on South Andaman’s Coastal Shoreline: A Geospatial Analysis of Erosion and Accretion Patterns

Journal of Marine Science and Engineering所収
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The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami significantly impacted the coastal shoreline
of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, causing widespread destruction of infrastructure and ecological
damage. This study aims to analyze the short- and long-term shoreline changes in South Andaman,
focusing on 2004–2005 (pre- and post-tsunami) and 1990–2023 (to assess periodic changes). Using
remote sensing techniques and geospatial tools such as the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS),
shoreline change rates were calculated in four zones, revealing the extent of the tsunami’s impact.
During the pre- and post-tsunami periods, the maximum coastal erosion rate was 􀀀410.55 m/year,
while the maximum accretion was 359.07 m/year in zone A, the island’s east side. For the 1990–2023
period, the most significant coastal shoreline erosion rate was also recorded in zone A, which was
recorded at 􀀀2.3 m/year. After analyzing the result, it can be seen that the tsunami severely affected
the island’s east side. To validate the coastal shoreline measurements, the root mean square error
(RMSE) of Landsat-7 and Google Earth was 18.53 m, enabling comparisons of the accuracy of different
models on the same dataset. The results demonstrate the extensive impact of the 2004 Indian Ocean
Tsunami on South Andaman’s coastal shoreline and the value of analyzing shoreline changes to
understand the short- and long-term consequences of such events on coastal ecosystems. This
information can inform conservation efforts, management strategies, and disaster response plans to
mitigate future damage and allocate resources more efficiently. By better understanding the impact
of tsunamis on coastal shorelines, emergency responders, government agencies, and conservationists
can develop more effective strategies to protect these fragile ecosystems and the communities that
rely on them.

Suraj Kumar
Deepak Kumar