Illegal sand mining has been identified as a significant cause of harm to riverbanks, as it leads to excessive removal of sand from rivers and negatively impacts river shorelines. This investigation aimed to identify instances of shoreline erosion and accretion at illegal sand mining sites along the Chambal River. These sites were selected based on a report submitted by the Director of the National Chambal Sanctuary (NCS) to the National Green Tribunal (NGT) of India. The digital shoreline analysis system (DSAS v5.1) was used during the elapsed period from 1990 to 2020. Three statistical parameters used in DSAS—the shoreline change envelope (SCE), endpoint rate (EPR), and net shoreline movement (NSM)—quantify the rates of shoreline changes in the form of erosion and accretion patterns. To carry out this study, Landsat imagery data (T.M., ETM+, and OLI) and Sentinel-2A/MSI from 1990 to 2020 were used to analyze river shoreline erosion and accretion. The normalized difference water index (NDWI) and modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI) were used to detect riverbanks in satellite images. The investigation results indicated that erosion was observed at all illegal mining sites, with the highest erosion rate of 1.26 m/year at the Sewarpali site. On the other hand, the highest accretion was identified at the Chandilpura site, with a rate of 0.63 m/year. We observed significant changes in river shorelines at illegal mining and unmined sites. Erosion and accretion at unmined sites are recorded at −0.18 m/year and 0.19 m/year, respectively, which are minor compared to mining sites. This study’s findings on the effects of illegal sand mining on river shorelines will be helpful in the sustainable management and conservation of river ecosystems. These results can also help to develop and implement river sand mining policies that protect river ecosystems from the long-term effects of illegal sand mining.