Numerical Modeling and Simulation for Water Management

Sustainable Solutions for Urban Water Security Innovative Studies所収

Global change processes like increasing population, haphazard urbanization and climate change have resulted huge pressure on natural resources. In this context, it is natural to think of how water cycle will be altered by such global change processes. Currently, more than half of the global population resides in urban areas, and thus, urban water security is of great concern. Hydrologic simulation models enable to assess various implications of the global change processes on water resources variables. Various hydrologic models are available for simulating the water resources variables. Each of the hydrologic models has some specific features. The hydrologic models are largely used for investigating impacts of urbanization and climate change on water resources variables like runoff, groundwater recharge, etc. Hydrologic models are categorized into various ways. Based on length of simulation time, a model can be of continuous or event-based type. Hydrologic models are also popularly classified as empirical, conceptual and physical types. Hydrologic simulation models require various data and tools which are available with different agencies. It is important to have easy access to such data and tools for the sustainable water management. Hydrologic modeling requires various kinds of spatial and temporal data for the model setup and prediction of water resources variables. Collection, analysis and integration of such spatial and temporal data with a hydrologic model is complex job. Remote sensing data and geographic information system can be easily linked with a hydrologic model and enable hydrologic simulations easier and reliable. This chapter discusses numerical modeling and simulations for the water management with focus on their types, applications, data access and spatial analysis tools.

Kumar Mishra