Wastewater is an important source of water and nutrients for irrigation in developing countries, particularly but not restricted to those located in arid and semi-arid areas. The use of wastewater is widespread and represents around 10 percent of the total irrigated surface worldwide, although varying widely at local levels. While the use of wastewater has positive effects for farmers, mainly related to their income level, it also has negative effects on human health and the environment. The negative effects impact not only farmers but also a wide range of people. Because wastewater reuse is currently necessary, it is important for governments to put in place wise but feasible management practices, such as the ones discussed in this paper, to improve the benefits while reducing and controlling the drawbacks. In order to implement sustainable reuse of wastewater and to contribute to food security, reuse projects need to be planned and constructed for the long term and based on local needs.
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