Decentralized Solid Waste Management in the Philippines

Kitakyushu Initiative Research
June 2009

The main objective of this study is to analyze the framework of solid waste management (SWM) system in the Philippines, identify good SWM practices, and formulate strategies for its replication in the country and among local government members of the Kitakyushu Initiative Network. Specifically it seeks to:

1. Analyze the mandates and role of local government units as stipulated in the Philippine Republic Act (RA) 9003, otherwise known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000.
2. Identify cases of successful implementation of RA 9003 by local government units in the Philippines and analyze them in the context of:
a. Local policy intervention/support
i. Development process (public participation etc..)
ii. Policy provisions (guidelines, budget, incentives/subsidies etc.)
iii. Institutional arrangements (roles, stakeholders etc..)
iv. Implementation process
b. Solid Waste Management Components
i. Reduction and segregation at source
ii. Collection and transport
iii. Waste handling and recovery (recycling, composting, energy conversion, etc..)
iv. Final disposal (including conversion of open dumpsites to sanitary landfills)
c. Achievements
i. Environmental benefits (tangible improvements)
ii. Socio-economic benefits (livelihood, income etc..)
3. Identify the barriers, challenges in developing and implementing solid waste management programs and projects and the measures adopted to overcome these challenges.
4. Identify the factors for successful implementation.
5. Formulate strategies for replication of these good practices.

This study was conducted to analyze the impact and the extent of implementation of the national SWM policy in the Philippines. The focal areas studied are the initiatives of the local governments in the country and the approaches/measures they have adopted in addressing solid waste problems with respect to the national policy. This study also evaluated the challenges and success factors for implementation. The study also recommended areas for further studies to enhance regulations and strategies for replication.

The study investigated four case studies on solid waste management practices at the barangay or village level and six case studies on development of final disposal facilities (sanitary landfills) at the municipal or city level. The case studies were selected following discussion with the Secretariat of the National Solid Waste Management Commission (NSWMC), which monitor compliance of local governments with RA 9003 and choose model local governments that exhibit exemplary performance.

The case studies on solid waste management practices represent different income categories of barangays based on their internal revenue allotment (contribution of the national government to local governments’ sources of funds). On the other hand, the case studies on disposal facilities represent the different categories of sanitary landfills based on the LGUs net residual waste generation.