Global Stocktake (GST) Special webpage

IGES Activity On
Global Stocktake

The final approval of the implementation guidelines for the Paris Agreement at the 26th Conference of the Parties (COP26) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change last November has prompted a phase in which countries will be required to take further ambitious action to achieve the Agreement’s goals in accordance with agreed-upon rules. The first Global Stocktake (GST), a mechanism for assessing collective progress toward the goals will therefore be a focus of the global climate change agenda. The first GST already began at COP26 and is due to conclude in November 2023, at COP28.

This page provides an overview of the GST and its procedures. Explore and find more about the GST and the latest developments by accessing the site below.

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Learn about GST

Learn about GST

What is the GST?

The GST, covered in Article 14 of the Paris Agreement, is a process for taking stock of the implementation of the Paris Agreement and assessing collective progress towards achieving its goals. The outcomes of the GST will provide ... 

Learn about GST

The process of GST

The GST consists of three components, namely (1) information collection and preparation, (2) technical assessment, and (3) consideration of outputs. The implementation of these three components will take approximately two to two and a half years. Therefore, the first GST commenced in November 2021 (COP 26) and will continuously run until the (3) "consideration of outputs" to be implemented at COP 28 in 2023.

Ongoing Discussions

Past Event
UNFCCC Official side event

Bottom-up Approach of Regional Non-state Actors toward Updating NDCs in Post-GST

As the first GST is to be concluded at COP28, one important consideration is the involvement of Non-State Actors (NSAs) in the post-GST activities. The independent Global Stocktake (iGST) Regional Hubs in Southeast Asia and West Africa have been...
Asia-Pacific Climate Week 2023
Ongoing Discussions

The 20th Informal Meeting on Further Actions against Climate Change
(commonly known as the Japan-Brazil Informal Meeting)

The Global Stocktake (GST) was taken up at the Japan-Brazil informal meeting, where it was informally discussed by negotiators from around the world. A number of participants expressed their opinion that the GST is an important pro...

IGES Perspectives

The Role of Non-State Actors (NSA) in the GST: Two Ongoing Objectives in Advocacy (20 October 2023)

Kei KURUSHIMA, Policy Researcher, Adaptation & Water

The Synthesis report on GST elements released ahead of COP28 addressed 17 key findings. IGES has been actively engaged in establishing the independent Global Stocktake Southeast Asia Hub (iGST Southeast Asia Regional Hub) as a platform for non-state actors (NSAs) in Southeast Asia to contribute to the GST through regional initiatives. The inclusion of NSA’s roles in the key findings was a significant development for the Hub.

In addition, in a report released in October outlining the sub-missions entitled, “Synthesis Report: Views on the elements for the consideration of outputs component of the first global stocktake”, the importance of NSAs in communicating the outcomes of the GST to communities and civil society was highlighted with a nod to IGES.

The Hub’s activities have consistently prioritised advocating the positions of NSAs in relation to the GST. In June of this year, at the 58th Sessions of the UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies (SB) in Bonn, Germany, the Hub collaborated with multiple organisations. Representatives from the three iGST Hubs in Southeast Asia, West Africa, and Latin America engaged in discussions regarding the importance of and challenges faced by NSAs in the context of the GST.

Advocating for the role of NSAs in the GST process serves two primary objectives. Firstly, it seeks to raise awareness among government actors about the vital role of NSAs in the GST. Hosting side events during SB58 was done with this intention, providing an opportunity to learn about their initiatives. Secondly, it is to enhance understanding among NSAs of the GST and encourage their participation in the process. The activities of the Hub have revealed that there is still insufficient understanding of GST among NSAs dedicated to addressing climate change. As a result, we found that the critical objective of the Hub's initiatives is to convey the significance of NSA involvement in the GST and to encourage the further participation of NSAs in this process.

Given the recognition of NSA roles in the key findings of the synthesis report, the iGST Southeast Asia Regional Hub is determined to ramp up its advocacy efforts. Our strategy includes active participation in major international conferences such as the Asia Pacific Climate Week (APCW) and COP28. We will organise events to strengthen our partnerships with relevant stakeholders, allowing us to effectively convey and emphasise the pivotal role of NSAs in the GST process.

Furthermore, we are dedicated to ensuring that the results of the first GST are effectively communicated to our Hub members. IGES remains committed to translating our advocacy into tangible actions.


The path to COP28: Efforts are required to bridge differences in views among countries (31 August 2023)

Akibi TSUKUI, Programme Manager, Climate and Energy, IGES

The Global Stocktake (GST) has been increasingly mentioned in conferences held outside the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) such as the G7 and G20, indicating a growing awareness of the GST among ministers from various countries. At the G20 Environment and Climate Ministers’ meeting held in Chennai, India on 28 July, the Outcome Document and Chair’s Summary, issued in place of a joint statement that was not adopted, emphasised the importance of the GST and highlighted the need to contribute to a successful conclusion of the first GST at COP28.

On the other hand, on examining the paragraph on the GST in the Chair’s Summary, it is clear that the language was extracted from existing agreements such as the Paris Agreement and decisions of the CMA (Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement). While I have previously stressed the importance of generating political momentum through platforms like the G7 and G20 to ensure the success of the GST, this outcome document does not reveal much about the direction or commitment of India (this year’s G20 Presidency) or of the G20 as a whole.

A divergence of opinion between countries over the GST has surfaced. The GST assesses not only mitigation, but also adaptation, finance, technology transfer, and capacity-building. At COP28, Parties must agree on a document that summarises the progress made so far and the opportunities for accelerating future action on all of these topics. During the GST negotiations held in Bonn, Germany in June, the structure of this document was discussed, but no agreement was reached on language regarding finance, and the text was treated as simply a reference, with comments from each country included. At COP28, Parties will discuss the content rather than structure. Negotiations over finance and language on GHG emission reduction targets, which have been difficult to discuss in previous climate negotiations, are expected to be very tough.

The first GST is often described as “an opportunity for course correction”. Action must be taken to correct the trajectory and move toward the goals agreed upon in the Paris Agreement, and the first step is to bridge the gap in perspectives between countries. The next events to watch out for are the ministerial consultations convened by ministers of South Africa and Denmark from July to September, as requested by the COP 28 Presidency, UAE. The outcome of the discussions will be reported in time for the United Nations General Assembly in September. I hope that the issues that may arise during GST negotiation will be recognised at the ministerial level and concrete solutions will be considered.


Can the Global Stocktake act as a catalyst for adaptation and loss and damage? The crucial involvement of non-state actors (2 August 2023)

Nagisa SHIIBA, Policy Researcher, Adaptation & Water, IGES

As a significant component of COP28 in December 2023, the global stocktake (GST) is gaining increased attention. The GST serves as a comprehensive assessment of countries’ progress regarding countries’ reduction targets for greenhouse gas emissions and the flow of support such as financing. Additionally, the GST will cover efforts on adaptation and loss and damage. To date, in GST’s implementation processes, it has collected information on adaptation and loss and damage, resulting in dynamic discussions on these topics during the three technical dialogues held.

The absence of concrete methodologies to evaluate progress on actions related to adaptation and loss and damage poses a challenge for the GST in its efforts to enhance countries’ climate actions. Nevertheless, during the three technical dialogues, countries have progressed in clarifying a common direction to achieve this goal.

The dialogue frequently addressed the importance of “transformational adaptation,” a concept emphasised in the latest report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. This approach involves making significant changes in the structure or function that go beyond incremental adaptation approaches. Similarly, the discussions emphasized the importance of avoiding “maladaptation.” Within the context of adaptation, the GST serves as a forum for the exchange of international values that unite national efforts based on the best available science. In the aftermath of the first GST, the GST needs to move beyond value sharing and act as a driving force in promoting adaptation and loss and damage initiatives worldwide.

This requires recognizing the pivotal role played by non-state actors (NSAs), a central topic in GST discussions. NSAs encompass a wide range of actors, civil society groups, businesses, local governments, academic institutions, and non-government organizations. The active participation of regionally rooted NSAs is particularly influential in addressing adaptation and loss and damage challenges that are likely dependent on local contexts.

The GST Technical Dialogue Summary Report highlights that the promotion of adaptation informed by local contexts and priorities leads to adequate adaptation actions and support, fostering transformational adaptation. If the first GST sought to effectively promote adaptation and address loss and damage, ensuring the participation of NSAs in future GST processes and encouraging their efforts will be crucial.

A crucial strategy toward achieving this objective entails actively involving NSAs and emphasizing their potential roles in the GST process. In addition, regional initiatives led by NSAs must maintain a strong momentum during the follow-up phase of the first GST.


Key Updates from the G7 Ministers’ Meeting on Climate, Energy, and Environment in Sapporo
G7 Is Committed to Building Political Momentum to Prepare Outcomes of the First Global Stocktake (3 July 2023)

Akibi TSUKUI, Programme Manager, Climate and Energy, IGES

The G7 Climate, Energy, and Environment Ministers’ Communiqué has a passage devoted to the first Global Stocktake (GST).

The Communiqué emphasises that the outcome of the first and ongoing GST should give clear direction to the next round of NDCs to be communicated by 2025, which should reflect economy-wide absolute reduction targets, including all GHGs, sectors and categories.

In this statement, G7 commits to actively contributing to securing ambitious outcomes of the first GST and to building political momentum to address the need for the world to increase climate action in this critical decade and beyond.

The GST outcome must provide a concrete roadmap and possible measures to be taken and send a strong political signal to promote stronger action, rather than just showing the gaps in achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement. G7’s commitment to the first GST represents a significant milestone in generating global political momentum toward COP28. All eyes are now on the upcoming G20 meeting and the UN Climate Ambition Summit in September to learn what further progress will be made.


The Paris Agreement Global Stocktake (GST) connects the “best available science.” Researchers must do more than just provide information to encourage action. (3 July 2023)

Chisa UMEMIYA, Research Manager, Climate and Energy, IGES

The GST evaluates the global collective progress toward the long-term objectives of the Paris Agreement using the most reliable scientific knowledge available, i.e., “best available science.” In particular, in addition to the most recent assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), it refers to the input of information submitted by stakeholders to the United Nations, including research institutes, universities, nongovernmental organizations, local governments, companies, etc.

With researchers from the National Institute for Environmental Studies who submitted input for the GST, we held a webinar in February 2023 with the title “Understanding the Greenhouse Gas Budget Through Observations and Simulations: Toward the Best Available Science” (the recording is available in Japanese). It should be noted that the GST is bringing in natural and engineering researchers who are typically not directly involved in research related to the implementation of the Paris Agreement, resulting in a smaller gap between climate policy and science than previously existed. For example, the IPCC researchers review a large number of peer-reviewed papers and provide the latest scientific findings, while the GST aims to evaluate scientific knowledge and then inform countries to improve their next national targets and actions, known as the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). The GST provides researchers with a great opportunity to use their research findings to develop messages that can advance climate policy and action.

Furthermore, there is room for improvement in terms of how well the GST has applied the “best available science.” Currently, it is unclear how numerous inputs submitted by stakeholders have been considered during the GST assessment process. In addition, it is still unclear if the governments of each country are prepared to strengthen the next NDC based on the outcomes of the GST.

According to the Paris Agreement, governments must describe in their upcoming NDCs how they have considered the outcomes of the GST. We must promote the development of a system that actually utilizes the “best available science” to strengthen national targets and actions instead of just using it as an input of information to the GST process. For example, if researchers who input information can interpret the outcomes of GST in the context of particular countries, companies, or local governments and set up a place to explain them, the environment for considering the next NDCs based on the “best available science” will be developed. Researchers are expected to play a more in-depth role in bridging the outcomes of the GST to the next NDC, going beyond providing information.


The importance of Global Stocktake in the 2023 climate negotiation: Can it generate ambitious outcomes that can enhance reduction targets? (13 March 2023)

Akibi TSUKUI, Programme Manager, Climate and Energy, IGES

Governments must strengthen their 2035 emission reduction targets they will commit to in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) pledges, which are due in 2025, by using the outcomes of the first Global Stocktake (GST) currently underway. The current reduction targets and climate actions have not put us on track to achieve the 1.5-degree target. The 28th Conference of the Parties (COP28) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change will be held in the United Arab Emirates this December. In the spotlight will be the question of whether countries can agree to the outcomes of the GST that can contribute to enhancing reduction targets.

While the outcomes of the GST will be developed through discussions at high-level events attended by ministers and heads of government of each country, the GST has gained little attention from high-level government representatives in the past. Their participation in the presidency event on the GST convened by the Egyptian Presidency during COP27 was very limited. The GST is expected to be discussed at the G7, which will be chaired by Japan, and at the Climate Ambition Summit, which will be convened by the UN Secretary-General in September. It is essential to build political momentum for COP28 through these opportunities.

We, the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), have emphasized the importance of the participation and engagement of nonstate actors, including civil society, business, local governments, academia, and NGOs, as one of the keys to a successful GST. Their independent scientific and technical knowledge can fill various gaps in information assessed in the GST, allowing the GST outputs to incorporate inputs from various stakeholders. By doing so, the outputs will more likely be widely accepted and contribute to enhancing climate actions aligned with the NDCs.

As part of our efforts to encourage nonstate actors to participate in the GST, the IGES leads the Southeast Asia Hub of the independent Global Stocktake (iGST) in collaboration with the Institute for Climate Sustainable Cities. Through this activity, we support proactive climate actions by collecting and bringing the voices and activities of stakeholders in the Southeast Asia region to the GST and unpacking the feedback mechanism of how countries can use the outcomes of the GST to raise their NDCs.


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Associated Staff