The purpose of this guide is to introduce the concept of landscape and seascape approaches (henceforth, “landscape approaches” for ease of reading), and how they can be applied to national biodiversity strategy and planning. Although it is written from the point of view of biodiversity conservation, it is aimed at all the many sectors that affect, and are affected by, conservation. Throughout this document, “conservation” may also include the restoration and sustainable use of biodiversity. The manual consists of four sections:
● Section 1 provides context. It explains what is meant by landscapes, seascapes and waterscapes, and landscape approaches, and how they are relevant to national biodiversity strategies and action plans (NBSAPs) and the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF).
● Section 2 explains how to operationalize or implement landscape approaches. Landscape approaches are typically implemented at the local level, which is usually beyond the remit of NBSAPs. However, there are cases in which national governments work at the local level. In many other cases, as discussed in section 3, national governments can enable and encourage landscape approaches. To do so, however, a basic understanding of the process of implementing landscape approaches is necessary.
● Section 3 discusses how landscape approaches can be applied to the process of updating or developing NBSAPs, using the targets of the GBF. While section 2 outlines how to “do” landscape approaches, section 3, shows how to enable and encourage landscape approaches by integrating them into strategy at the national level.
● Section 4 discusses additional ways of enabling and encouraging the uptake of landscape approaches, beyond NBSAPs, including how to be strategic about their application.