Stubble burning in Punjab, India, poses significant environmental challenges, particularly impacting air quality. This study aims to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of stubble burning events and their potential effect on ambient air quality from 2019 to 2022. High-resolution Sentinel-2 satellite imagery was employed to delineate the spatial extent of stubble burning. Burnt areas were identified using the Normalised Burn Ratio (NBR). Air quality was evaluated based on PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations data obtained from the Punjab Pollution Control Board. The Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation technique was used to estimate pollution values in areas lacking direct monitoring. The study revealed significant year-to-year variations in areas affected by stubble burning. The smallest burnt areas were recorded in October 2019 and 2021 (209 sq km), while the largest was in 2020 (755.38 sq km). In every year studied, the burnt area in November consistently exceeded that in October, with the largest area (10315 sq km) observed in 2021. PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations also showed annual fluctuations, with the highest recorded in 2020 and 2021. In particular, in October 2020, higher PM2.5 and PM10 levels were detected in the eastern region of Punjab. November consistently exhibited higher PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations than October for all years analysed, peaking in 2021. The spatial and temporal variations of stubble burning events and their relationship with air quality highlight the need for targeted interventions. Understanding these patterns is crucial for mitigating the adverse effects of stubble burning on air quality in Punjab, India. Future research should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of various mitigation strategies.