Hydrogeochemical Evolution and Appraisal of Groundwater Quality in Panna District, Central India

In Exposure and Health
Peer-reviewed Article

Intense agricultural and mining/industrial activities make groundwater quality vulnerable to contaminants. This study conducted in one of the mining areas of Panna district evaluated the factors influencing the groundwater hydrogeochemistry using water quality parameters and multi-isotopic approach considering the fact that groundwater is the only major source of drinking water. Forty-five water samples comprising both shallow and deep aquifers were collected and analyzed for major ions, d18O, and dD. The geochemical data were used to characterize and classify water samples based on a multitude of ion plots and diagrams. The groundwater in the region is found to be contaminated with fluoride and nitrate. The sources for fluoride are mostly geogenic in nature. The alkaline nature of groundwater triggers replacement of the exchangeable fluoride from minerals like biotite/muscovite and results in its enrichment. In addition, it is contributed through leaching of fluorides from granitic rocks, abundantly present in the study area. The weathering of these fluoride-bearing minerals releases fluoride into the groundwater. On the other hand, nitrate enrichment is mainly attributed to leaching from untreated sewerage system and agricultural runoff containing nutrients from excess use of fertilizers. The stable isotopiccomposition for most of the collected samples was found to be near the local meteoric water line (LMWL), i.e., origin of ground water is meteoric in principle; however, the point away from the LMWL might favor exchange with rock minerals and evaporation processes. This study sets an important background for decision makers to take the suitable countermeasures from the public health perspective for sustainable water resources management.

Chander Kumar