This article proposes a conceptual framework that identified five types of Goals, and explains the complex relationships among them. Means-type goals can be classified into five categories, by function: resources, environment, education, economy, and governance. Approaching the SDGs as a system where different goals play different roles can help to devise more effective implementation strategies and also to reduce the overall cost.
This article is based on Elder, Mark, Magnus Bengtsson, and Lewis Akenji. 2016. ‘An Optimistic Analysis of the Means of Implementation for Sustainable Development Goals: Thinking about Goals as Means.’ Sustainability 8 (9): 962–86. doi:10.3390/su8090962.