The purpose of this paper is to understand the current situation of local dwellers in protected areas, by revealing the reality of biodiversity conservation management in those areas, and to examine the tangled relationships between nature and human-kind. In order to protect precious biodiversity on earth, discussions on this topic are carried out internationally, and protected areas are increasing throughout the world. Because local dwellers often occupy the areas which are also designated as protected areas, the rights of those people should be ensured. While preservationists and government authorities have achieved biodiversity conservation and succeeded in acquiring foreign currency by establishing protected areas and eco-tourism in them, those did not contribute to the economic benefits of local dwellers, but rather, jeopardized their customary lifestyles. These different attitudes towards nature by different stakeholders are causing conflicts between biodiversity and culture. It is indispensable to delegate some responsibilities for the management of protected areas from the central to the local, and to construct the management system which can share benefits among stakeholders, by providing direct meeting between self-supported local organizations and governments in conjunction with third parties such as NGOs.