Assessing the Groundwater Reserves of the Udaipur District, Aravalli Range, India, Using Geospatial Techniques

In Water
Peer-reviewed Article
cover image

Population increase has placed ever-increasing demands on the available groundwater
(GW) resources, particularly for intensive agricultural activities. In India, groundwater is the backbone
of agriculture and drinking purposes. In the present study, an assessment of groundwater
reserves was carried out in the Udaipur district, Aravalli range, India. It was observed that the
principal aquifer for the availability of groundwater in the studied area is quartzite, phyllite, gneisses,
schist, and dolomitic marble, which occur in unconfined to semi-confined zones. Furthermore, all
primary chemical ingredients were found within the permissible limit, including granum. We also
found that the average annual rainfall days in a year in the study area was 30 from 1957 to 2020, and it
has been found that there are chances to receive surplus rainfall once in every five deficit rainfall years.
Using integrated remote sensing, GIS, and a field-based spatial modeling approach, it was found
that the dynamic GW reserves of the area are 637.42 mcm/annum, and the total groundwater draft
is 639.67 mcm/annum. The deficit GW reserves are 2.25 mcm/annum from an average rainfall of
627 mm, hence the stage of groundwater development is 100.67% and categorized as over-exploited.
However, as per the relationship between reserves and rainfall events, surplus reserves are available
when rainfall exceeds 700 mm. We conclude that enough static GW reserves are available in the
studied area to sustain the requirements of the drought period. For the long-term sustainability
of groundwater use, controlling groundwater abstraction by optimizing its use, managing it properly
through techniques such as sprinkler and drip irrigation, and achieving more crop-per-drop
schemes, will go a long way to conserving this essential reserve, and create maximum groundwater
recharge structures.

Suraj Kumar