Assessment of the Ecological Risk from Heavy Metals in the Surface Sediment of River Surma, Bangladesh: Coupled Approach of Monte Carlo Simulation and Multi-Component Statistical Analysis

In Water
Peer-reviewed Article

River sediment can be used to measure the pollution level in natural water, as it serves as
one of the vital environmental indicators. This study aims to assess heavy metal pollution namely
Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Cadmium (Cd) in
Surma River. Further, it compares potential ecological risk index values using Hakanson Risk Index
(RI) and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) approach to evaluate the environmental risks caused by
these heavy metals. in the study area. With obtained results, enrichment of individual heavy metals
in the study area was found in the order of Ni > Pb > Cd > Mn > Cu > Zn. Also, variance in MCS
index contributed by studied metals was in the order of Cd > Pb > Ni > Zn > Cu. None of the heavy
metals, except Ni, showed moderate contamination of the sediment. Risk index values from RI and
MCS provide valuable insights in the contamination profile of the river, indicating the studied river is
currently under low ecological risk for the studied heavy metals. This study can be utilized to assess
the susceptibility of the river sediment to heavy metal pollution near an urban core, and to have a
better understanding of the contamination profile of a river.

M. Safiur