Although an enormous progress has been made over the last 25 years regarding the increased access to improved on-site sanitation such as septic tanks in urban areas of Indonesia, but unfortunately most of them are soak pits of poorly designed, constructed, open bottomed septic tanks. Particularly, due to lack of regular de-sludging and maintenance, these septic tanks do not well function, and often act as non-point sources of pollution rather than effective on-site sanitation systems. Therefore, in order to ensure good performance of septic tanks, proper sludge/septage management across the sanitation service chain is considered a critical factor. Under this study, a comprehensive and in-depth investigation on septage management in the urban areas of Indonesia has been carried out, through two specific case studies in Bandung and Denpasar city, in order to have a better understanding of actual challenges, existing business model and opportunities on the ground for improved performance of onsite sanitation systems as well as septage management system across its service chain. By applying multi-stakeholders participatory approach, this study has initiated and facilitated policy dialogues among different relevant policy & decision makers at both central and local governmental level, enterprises, community-based organizations, universities and NGOs in both two studied cities; to identify appropriate measures and commercially feasible business models for optimizing the performance of septage service chain.