Socio-ecological production landscapes and seascapes (SEPLS) can contribute to global goals for biodiversity conservation and dealing with climate change, while also contributing locally to human security and wellbeing. SEPLS are, however, under threat around the world. SEPLS have been promoted under the Satoyama Initiative by the International Partnership for the Satoyama Initiative (IPSI). The concept of “regional/local circulating and ecological spheres” (regional/local CES) acknowledges the contributions of SEPLS to the green economy and resilience at multiple scales. Regional/local CES provides a conceptual framework that can be used to design policies and mobilise resources to conserve and enrich SEPLs globally. The successor to the IPSI Plan of Action: 2013-2020 can promote SEPLS by understanding them as local CES nested within increasingly coarser-scale CES.