The Paris Climate Agreement and Beyond: Linking Short-term Climate Actions to Long-term Goals

This report discusses possible ways to enhance the Parties’ contributions to climate mitigation and finance, and draws lessons for the international negotiations leading up to the Paris climate agreement. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of the dynamic nature of the climate regime, looking not only at the Paris climate agreement but also at the follow-up of the agreement (so-called “beyond”). This is critical to make the "nationally determined contribution" approach sufficiently effective to achieve the 2°C target. The report also covers the issues of market-based mechanisms and loss and damage as important components of a post-2020 climate regime.


Executive Summary

Executive Summary (Japanese version)

Chapter 1

Chapter 2
Historical and Recent Trends of CO2 Emissions: Current Status and Ways to Close the Gap towards the 2°C Target

Chapter 3
Cycles for Strengthening Mitigation and Support

Chapter 4
Roles of Scientific Community in a Cycle for Enhancing Mitigation Contributions

Chapter 5
How Do We Evaluate the Ambition Level of INDCs Ex-ante? An Initial Assessment on Japan

Chapter 6
Key Accounting Issues in Developing Countries for the Use of Market-based Mechanisms

Chapter 7
Loss and Damage Associated with Climate Change: What and Why, Stakeholder Perspectives, and a Way Forward

Chapter 8
Key Recommendations and Way Forward