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Discussion Paper

温暖化に伴う水害の激甚化を受けて、地方自治体において防災・減災対策と適応策を統合し、適応能力と感受性により構成される脆弱性を低減させることが急務である。しかし、適応能力は多様な社会経済的な要素を含むため、政策上どの構成要素が重要であるかに関する包括的な検討は限定的である。そこで、本稿は、アンケート調査を実施し、地方自治体の現在の防災対策実施状況(ハード・ソフト・転換策の合計44対策)と各対策に関する将来の適応策の必要性認識に基づいて適応能力と感受性の構成要素の重要度を評価した。結果として、重要度が高く評価された適応能力要素は、地域コミュニティの「インフラ」(防災用)、「教育」(自主避難判断力、危険認知度)、「情報」(監視警戒力、情報伝達力)、「コミュニティガバナンス」(避難誘導力)、並びに...

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Industry, in the context of this chapter, is mostly confined to the strict definition of the word: -“economic activity concerned with the processing of raw materials and manufacture of goods in factories”. Industry has a major impact on nature and its biodi- versity in Asia and the Pacific, as it does elsewhere in the world. Industry impacts...

Discussion Paper

Ecosystem-based (EB) approaches have been strongly promoted in various international environmental and development processes. As a result, they are gaining increasing attention among development practitioners, policymakers and researchers. A review of G20 national adaptation plans and related strategies revealed that member countries have...

Discussion Paper

This paper explores the current understanding regarding the Circulating and Ecological Economy (CEE) and the Regional/Local CES concepts put forward by Japan’s Fifth Basic Environment Plan. The CEE and the Regional/Local CES advance a low-carbon, self-reliant, and decentralised society based on living in harmony with nature. The Regional/Local CES...

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In Global Environment Outlook - GEO-6: Healthy Planet, Healthy People
Author:
Christian
Loewe

Providing a decent life and well-being for nearly 10 billion1
people by 2050, without further compromising the ecological
limits of our planet and its benefits, is one of the most serious
challenges and responsibilities humanity has ever faced.
People worldwide rely on the smooth functioning of Earth’s
natural life-support systems, in different...

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In Global Environment Outlook - GEO-6: Healthy Planet, Healthy People
Author:
Paul
Lucas
Detlef
van Vuuren
Fintan
Hurley

An analysis of pathways towards sustainable development
needs a long-term vision. Ideally, such a vision is summarized
in a quantitative set of globally agreed key objectives or
targets. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development,
adopted in September 2015, conceptualizes sustainable
development through 17 SDGs and is further operationalized
throu...

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In Global Environment Outlook - GEO-6: Healthy Planet, Healthy People
Author:
Klaus
Jacob
Diana
Mangalagiu
Beatriz
Rodríguez-Labajos

This chapter introduces Part B of GEO-6: Policies, Goals, Objectives and Environmental Governance: An Assessment of Their Effectiveness.

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In Global Environment Outlook - GEO-6: Healthy Planet, Healthy People
Author:
Klaus
Jacob
Diana
Mangalagiu
Pandi
Zdruli
Katharina
Helming
Andrew
Onwuemele
Leila
Zamani
Darshini
Ravindranath
Hung
Vo

This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the current
Land and Soil policy framework and the related shortcomings,
especially in terms of policy cohesion and implementation, as
well as overall effectiveness. The subsequent sections present
case studies of different sets of legal and policy instruments,
economic tools and incentives, as well...

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In Global Environment Outlook - GEO-6: Healthy Planet, Healthy People
Author:
Erica
Gaddis
James
Grellier
Anna Maria
Grobicki
Rowena
Hay
Naho
Mirumachi
Gavin
Mudd
Farhad
Mukhtarov
Walter
Rast
Beatriz
Rodríguez-Labajos
Jaee Sanjay
Nikam
Patricia Nayna
Schwerdtle

Various policy approaches show that water quantity and quality
have serious implications for human and ecosystem health, and
that these interactions are driven by changes in multiple sectors.
Governance is increasingly opened up to non-State actors, such
as the private sector and civil society. Decision-making thus
needs to consider the full range...

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In Global Environment Outlook - GEO-6: Healthy Planet, Healthy People
Author:
John
Crump
Klaus
Jacob
Diana
Mangalagiu
Caroline
Zickgraf
Babatunde Joseph
Abiodun
Giovanna
Armiento
Rob
Bailey
Elaine
Baker
Kathryn Jennifer
Brown
Irene
Dankelman
Riyanti
Djalante
Monica
Dutta
Fintan
Hurley
Maria Jesus
Iraola
Rakhyun E.
Kim
Richard
King
Andrei
Kirilenko
Oswaldo
dos Santos Lucon
Ritu
Mathur
Gavin
Mudd
Sebastian
Sewerin
Tim
Stephens
Patricia
Schwerdtle
Joni
Seager
Laura
Wellesley
Caradee Y.
Wright
Souhir
Hammami

This chapter evaluates the capacity of environmental
policies to achieve transformational change in addressing
cross-cutting global sustainable development challenges.
To this end, the chapter addresses the major challenges
of adapting socioeconomic systems to climate change,
creating a sustainable agricultural and food production
system...