Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) is a pretreatment method used before landfilling to reduce the amount of waste to be disposed.3 MBT literally means the combination of mechanical crushing and sorting processes and biological treatment (e.g. aerobic and anaerobic decomposition) (Fig. 2). The advantage of MBT in terms of appropriate waste...
An analysis of pathways towards sustainable development
needs a long-term vision. Ideally, such a vision is summarized
in a quantitative set of globally agreed key objectives or
targets. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development,
adopted in September 2015, conceptualizes sustainable
development through 17 SDGs and is further operationalized
Various policy approaches show that water quantity and quality
have serious implications for human and ecosystem health, and
that these interactions are driven by changes in multiple sectors.
Governance is increasingly opened up to non-State actors, such
as the private sector and civil society. Decision-making thus
needs to consider the full range...
The Global Environment Outlook (GEO) is the result of a consultative and participatory process to prepare an independent assessment of the state of the environment, the effectiveness of the policy response in addressing environmental challenges and the possible pathways to achieving various internationally agreed environmental goals. The GEO is a...
The composition of Earth’s atmosphere is one of the major
determinants of a healthy planet, influencing the climate,
ecosystems and human health. This is highlighted by the
existence of a direct or indirect link between the challenges of
air pollution, climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion,
persistent bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT)...
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, together
with a range of Multilateral Environmental Agreements
(MEAs), set an ambitious long-term vision for the universal
pursuit of sustainable development through economic, social,
environmental and institutional transformation (Chapter
20). Although progress has been made in managing some
This chapter introduces Part B of GEO-6: Policies, Goals, Objectives and Environmental Governance: An Assessment of Their Effectiveness.
This chapter evaluates the capacity of environmental
policies to achieve transformational change in addressing
cross-cutting global sustainable development challenges.
To this end, the chapter addresses the major challenges
of adapting socioeconomic systems to climate change,
creating a sustainable agricultural and food production
Providing a decent life and well-being for nearly 10 billion1
people by 2050, without further compromising the ecological
limits of our planet and its benefits, is one of the most serious
challenges and responsibilities humanity has ever faced.
People worldwide rely on the smooth functioning of Earth’s
natural life-support systems, in different...
This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the current
Land and Soil policy framework and the related shortcomings,
especially in terms of policy cohesion and implementation, as
well as overall effectiveness. The subsequent sections present
case studies of different sets of legal and policy instruments,
economic tools and incentives, as well...