Groundwater Environment in Asian Cities: Concepts, Methods, and Case Studies

Chapter: 1st Edition
Book Chapter

Groundwater contributes to the sustainable development of many Asian cities by providing water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses and by regulating ecosystem flows. In many Asian cities more than half the potable water supply comes from groundwater. In some cities, groundwater
abstraction for industrial use is even higher than for potable use. Industrial use in total groundwater abstraction is 80% in Bandung and 60% in Bangkok. In India 60% of irrigated areas are served by groundwater. In Pakistan groundwater provides over 40% of total crop water requirements in the highly populous province of Punjab and 70% of the farmers receive 80–100% of their irrigation water from wells and tubewells. However, groundwater has not always been properly managed, which often has resulted in depletion and degradation of the resource. Much emphasis has been given to groundwater
resource development without paying careful attention to its management despite its strategic role in sustainable development. Many cities are already suffering from water insecurity as a result of rapid population growth and economic development. Without proactive groundwater governance, the
detrimental effects of poor management will nullify (or even surpass) the social gains made so far. Many cities are already suffering from water insecurity as a result of rapid population growth and economic development. To maintain the advantage of groundwater as an important resource for sustainable
development, groundwater management should be more strategic and proactive to cope with increased demand from rapid industrialization and urbanization including the potential impacts of climate change.

This book presents what is currently scientifically known about the groundwater environment of certain Asian cities using the driver-pressure- state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework. The book presents in detail facts and figures on groundwater dependence, problems related to ground- water overexploitation, implementation of various policy instruments and management practices, and their results in 14 carefully selected Asian cities: Bandung (Indonesia), Bangkok (Thailand), Beijing (China), Bishkek (Kyr- gyzstan), Chitwan (Nepal), Delhi (India), Dili (Timor-Leste), Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam), Hyderabad (India), Khulna (Bangladesh), Lahore (Pakistan), Seoul (South Korea),Tokyo (Japan), and Yangon (Myanmar). The book will be helpful to a wide range of readers – local, regional, and global – working directly or indirectly in the groundwater sector. It is specifically targeted at policy makers, decision makers, researchers and research/academic institutes, implementing agencies, and governments. The book’s collection of maps, tables, and references will be invaluable to those who would otherwise have to search elsewhere for basic information on the groundwater of Asian cities. The theoretical background of the topics discussed along with the case studies should help readers understand the similarities and differences about the status of groundwater development and use in each city. In addition, the information in the book will serve as a baseline for further research such as
the mitigation of groundwater-related problems (e.g., land subsidence), impact of climate change on groundwater, and the importance of groundwater in implementing sustainable development goals in the future.