Food Waste in Da Nang City of Vietnam: Trends, Challenges, and Perspectives toward Sustainable Resource Use

In Sustainability
Volume (Issue): 13(13)
Peer-reviewed Article
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Food waste has become a critical issue in modern society, especially in the urbanized and fast-growing cities of Asia. The increase in food waste has serious negative impacts on environmental sustainability, water and land resources, and food security, as well as climate and greenhouse gas emissions. Through a specific case study in Da Nang City, Vietnam, this paper examines the extent of food waste generation at the consumption stages, the eating habits of consumers, food waste from
households and service establishments, as well as prospects for the reuse of food waste as pig feed. The results of this study indicate that per capita food waste generation in Da Nang has increased from 0.39 to 0.41kg in 2016, 0.46 in 2017, and reached 0.52kg in 2018. According to the results of our consumer survey, 20% of respondents stated that they often generate food waste, 67% stated they sometimes do, and 13% stated they rarely do. Furthermore, 66% of surveyed households stated that their food waste is collected and transported by pig farmers to be used as feed for pigs. The use of food waste as feed for pigs is a typical feature in Da Nang. The study also found that there is a high level of consumer awareness and willingness to participate in the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) program, which was being initiated by the city government. In service facilities such as resorts and hotels, daily food waste reached 100–200 kg in large facilities and 20–120 kg in small facilities. This waste was also collected for use in pig farming. However, there has been a fall in demand for pig feed in line with a decrease in the number of pig farms due to the African swine fever epidemic that occurred during the implementation of this study. This paper suggests that there is a strong need to take both consumer-oriented waste prevention and waste management measures, such as waste segregation at source and introduction of effective food waste recycling techniques, to ensure that food waste can be safely and sustainably used as a “valuable resource” rather than “wasted.”