A Comparative Analysis of Determinants of Energy Savings in the Transport and Residential Sectors in Bogor, Indonesia

Commissioned Report

Following the 2015 Paris Agreement, Indonesia joined a growing list of countries pledging to mitigate its greenhouse gases (GHGs) in a nationally determined contribution (NDC). Whether Indonesia will be able to achieve its proposed NDC reduction target of 29 percent (against a 2020 baseline) by 2030 will hinge on how effectively governments at different levels persuade consumer to purchase energy savings technologies or alter energy-intensive behaviors. In short, it will depend on how Indonesia governs its low carbon transition in fast-growing cities like Bogor. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) can shed light on how governments and other stakeholders can help elicit these desired behavioral changes. The TPB holds behavioral change requires the intent to change behavior; intent is then triggered by 1) positive
attitudes towards the behavior; 2) social norms promoting that behavior; and 3) a sense of control over that behavior. The article then employs structural equation modelling (SEM) to determine whether the constructs in the TPB hold on the intent to purchase energy savings appliances or use public transport for an original data set of 600 respondents from Bogor, Indonesia. The results suggests that the TPB generally holds on both energy savings options, with attitudes and control playing a greater role for appliances and social norms having a bigger effect on public transport. The policy implications of these findings for Bogor and other cities undergoing low carbon transitions in Indonesia are discussed in the conclusion.