In developing countries, the major meaning of "sanitation" is the management of human excreta. In developing countries with poor water supply and sanitation systems, life expectancy is far lower than in industrialized countries. The causes of deaths are also quite different; infectious diseases account for more than 40 percent of deaths in developing countries, whereas they occupy only 1 percent in industrialized countries. This paper describes the types of communicable diseases in relation to their transmission routes, and discusses preventive measures for each water-related and excreta-related diseases. Water supply and sanitation schemes are also depicted. Considerations for the pertinent selection of water supply and sanitation schemes and "software" issues that support relevant technologies are also discussed, as well as topics such as community participation, women in development, and hygiene education-supporting factors of technology.
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