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100 Questions & Answers about MRV


In the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the 2007 Bali Action Plan, that is to enable the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention through long-term cooperative action, now, up to and beyond 2012, refers to “measurement, reporting and verification (MRV)” as an essential part of international processes. These include nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) by developing country (non-Annex I) Parties.

While provisions of MRV, e.g. scope, procedure, methodological guidance, etc., are yet to be decided, it is certain that the future MRV system will be built on the existing one. Almost all developing country parties to the UNFCCC have been involved with MRV of greenhouse gases (GHGs) under different schemes.

Examples of these schemes at the national level include national communications (NCs) and national GHG inventories. Another example is the assessment of emission reductions under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Some developing countries also have experience in MRV beyond what is currently established under the UNFCCC. In addition, developing countries have started gaining experiences with NAMA development and implementation on the ground.

Why this book has been made

One of the tasks at hand is to strengthen the understanding of existing MRV schemes. Learning from earlier experiences by developing countries is also vital to meet their needs and capacities. Efforts to increase the availability of information on MRV have been widely made.

The aim of this book is to help those who work, or are beginning to work, with MRV in climate change issues to understand MRV in a practical way, and learn the lessons and good practices that are available for developing countries. We introduce seven MRV schemes that have been established and on-going (see table on right). These range in scale from national to project. At the time of writing this book, some are directly under the UNFCCC and others, including the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM), are not. The JCM is jointly being developed and implemented by Japan and its partner countries.

How this book is useful

Our unique approach – one hundred questions and answers about MRV, can guide you to understand different existing MRV schemes in an easy-to-understand manner. In addition, we introduce lessons and good practices for developing countries when they practice MRV. The authors of this book have many years of experience with various MRV schemes in developing countries in Asia and other regions. Based on these experiences, we try to use our own words and also try to be as simple as possible.

MRV schemes introduced in this book

Scheme (Regulatory or implementing body) Scale
National Communication (UNFCCC) National
Biennial Update Report (UNFCCC)
National GHG inventory (UNFCCC)
Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (UNFCCC)
City GHG inventory (World Resources Institute, C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, and ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability) City
Clean Development Mechanism (UNFCCC) Project
Joint Crediting Mechanism (Japan and a host country)

This book may be found to be useful for those who want to learn about MRV in general, including policy makers, private sector, NGOs, students and donor agencies. Categorisations of questions and answers by theme and scale are available with visual marks. An index of questions is also attached at the end of this book.

The book is intended to be a living product, meaning that we will continue to revise and improve it as more information becomes available and good practices are shared. To this end, we would welcome any and all comments from readers.

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