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100 Questions & Answers about MRV

MRV at a Glance

National Communications (non-Annex I)

  M R V
Why is it necessary? To report the accurate circumstances of each party regarding such issues as GHG emissions and removals, mitigation measures, adaptation measures and other aspects of climate change to COP. COP needs to understand the status of GHG emissions/removals and implementation of mitigation and adaptation measures by each Party to consider how to tackle climate change. -
What is it about?
  • National circumstances
  • National greenhouse gas inventory
  • Adaptation measures and vulnerability assessment
  • Mitigation measures
  • Constraints and gaps, and related financial, technical and capacity needs
  • Other information (technology transfer, research and systematic observation, education, training and public awareness, capacity-building, information and networking)
-
How to do it? NCs coordinating entity collects relevant data/information in cooperation with a broad range of relevant ministries and organisations. Submit to the UNFCCC -
Who will do it? NCs coordinating entity, relevant ministries, institutions, organisations, etc. National Government -
Any standard or guidelines for it? Guidelines for the preparation of national communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (Decision 17/CP.8) Guidelines for the preparation of national communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (Decision 17/CP.8) -

Biennial Update Reports (non-Annex I)

  M R V
Why is it necessary? To report the accurate circumstances of each party regarding such issues as GHG emissions and removals, mitigation measures and other aspects of climate change to COP more frequently than NCs. To enhance reporting from non-Annex I Parties on GHG emissions and removals and measures taken to mitigate climate change. To increase transparency of mitigation actions and their effects.
What is it about?
  • National circumstances and institutional arrangements
  • Mitigation actions and their effects
  • Constraints and gaps, and related financial, technical and capacity needs
  • Domestic measurement reporting and verification;
  • Other information
  • National greenhouse gas inventory report
  • Information on mitigation actions
  • Analysis of the impacts of mitigation actions and the associated methodologies and assumptions
  • Progress made in their implementation
  • Information on domestic MRV
  • Support received
How to do it? Biennial updates reports (BURs) coordinating entity collects relevant data/information in cooperation with a broad range of relevant ministries and organisations. Submit to the UNFCCC International Consultations and Analysis (ICA), consists of the following:
  • Technical analysis
  • Facilitative sharing of views
Who will do it? BURs coordinating entity, relevant ministries, institutions, organisations, etc. National Government Technical analysis: Team of Technical Experts (TTE)
Facilitative sharing of views : SBI
Any standard or guidelines for it? UNFCCC biennial update reporting guidelines for Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (2/CP.17, Annex III) UNFCCC biennial update reporting guidelines for Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (2/CP.17, Annex III) Modalities and guidelines for international consultation and analysis (2/CP.17, Annex IV)

National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (non-Annex I)

  M R V
Why is it necessary? To estimate GHG emissions and removal at the national level. COP needs to understand the status of GHG emissions/removals by each Party to consider how to tackle climate change To increase the transparency of mitigation actions and their effects.
What is it about? National GHG emission/removal estimation database prepared based on UNFCCC Reporting Guidelines and IPCC Guidelines. Chapters on the national GHG inventories in the NCs and BURs. ICA
How to do it? Determined by each non-Annex I country based on Guidelines for the preparation of national communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (Decision 17/CP.8). To be determined based on Annex IV of UNFCCC biennial update reporting guidelines for Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (Decision 2/CP.17), and Composition, modalities and procedures of the team technical experts under international consultation and analysis (Decision 20/CP19).
Who will do it? Depends on each non-Annex I country’s national circumstances (there is no particular decision for the institution.)
Any standard or guidelines for it?
  • Guidelines for the preparation of national communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (Decision 17/CP.8)
  • UNFCCC biennial update reporting guidelines for Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (Decision 2/CP.17)
  • Revised IPCC Guidelines
  • GPG(2000)
  • GPG-LULUCF
  • 2006 IPCC Guidelines
  • Guidelines for the preparation of national communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (Decision 17/CP.8)
  • 1996 Revised IPCC Guidelines
  • GPG(2000)
  • GPG-LULUCF
  • 2006 IPCC Guidelines
UNFCCC biennial update reporting guidelines for Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (Decision 2/CP.17)

Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs)

  M R V
Why is it necessary? To understand the effects of mitigation actions by developing countries and the level of support provided for the actions to be taken. With BURs, the international community can be informed of progress made by developing countries in terms of mitigation actions and whether gaps exist for support. With ICA, to increase transparency of mitigation actions and their effects.
What is it about? To determine GHG emissions reduction through NAMAs relative to “business as usual” emissions and support provided for the mitigation actions. Reporting in BURs as components. Reporting on domestically supported NAMAs in BURs is a country’s selection. ICA for BURs. No verification agreed on domestically supported NAMAs.
How to do it? It is done by following international requirements, domestic policy and arrangements and requirements associated with support. Submission of BURs to the UNFCCC. How reporting on domestically supported NAMAs should be made depends on each country. ICA consists of technical analysis and facilitative sharing of views.
Who will do it? A broad range of NAMA implementers, from national, sub-national, to local scale. BURs coordinating entity designated by the government. TTE for ICA.
Any standard or guidelines for it?
  • UNFCCC biennial update reporting guidelines for Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (2/CP.17, Annex III)
  • General guidelines for domestic MRV of domestically supported NAMAs by developing country Parties (21/CP.19, Annex)
Modalities and guidelines for international consultation and analysis (2/CP.17, Annex IV)

City-Scale GHG Inventories

  M R V
Why is it necessary? To determine the emission levels, identify reduction opportunities, facilitate the design of mitigation actions, and to track progress toward reductions. For public disclosure and/or for the upper level governments to track the GHG performances of their cities. To enhance the credibility of GHG inventories.
What is it about? An inventory should include emissions from stationary energy sources; transportation; waste; industrial process and product use (IPPU); and agriculture, forestry, and other land use (AFOLU) sectors. A GHG inventory report should include GHG emission data, description of inventory boundary, year of inventory, data quality, methodologies used, and emission changes over time. Verification involves an assessment of the completeness, accuracy and reliability of reported data.
How to do it? It is typically done by calculation based on “activity data” and “emission factors”. Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories (GPC) provides standard reporting templates. It covers verification of inventory boundary, calculation methodologies, data quality, etc.
Who will do it? Normally GHG inventories are implemented (either in-house or out-sourced) by the agencies responsible for climate change or environmental protection under the city governments. In some countries, cities are required to report their emission data to the national governments. Cities may also report to voluntary GHG reporting programmes. It can be done by an independent organization/individual (third party verification) or internally (internal verification).
Any standard or guidelines for it? Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories (GPC) Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories (GPC) Currently there is no international standard for verification but the GPC provides some guidance on it.

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

  M R V
Why is it necessary? To determine GHG emissions reduction and removal through CDM project activity. Ex post determination of the monitored GHG emissions reduction and removal.
What is it about? GHG emissions reduction and removal within the CDM project boundary.
How to do it? Collecting and archiving all relevant data in accordance with the monitoring plan as described in a project design document (PDD). Writing a monitoring report. Documentation check, on-site inspections, review of the monitoring methodology, writing a verification report.
Who will do it? Project participants (PPs). Designated operational entity (DOE).
Any standard or guidelines for it?
  • Clean development mechanism project standard
  • Clean development mechanism project cycle procedure
  • Form and guidelines for completing the monitoring report form
  • Guidelines for completing the monitoring report form
  • Clean development mechanism validation and verification standard
  • Guidelines on the application of materiality in verifications

Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM)

  M R V
Why is it necessary? To monitor GHG emissions reduction and removal by JCM project based on PDD. To verify the amount of GHG emissions reduction and removal on the basis of the monitoring report.
What is it about? GHG emission reductions or removals achieved by the contribution of PPs in the implementation of GHG emissions reduction and removal project activities under the JCM.
How to do it? Collecting and archiving all relevant data necessary for estimating GHG emissions. Setting out the GHG emissions reduction of an implemented registered JCM project for a particular monitoring period. Ex post determination by a third party entity (TPE) of the monitored GHG emissions reduction as a result of a registered JCM project during the verification period.
Who will do it? The PPs prepare a draft monitoring report in line with the applied methodology and PDD and Monitoring Guidelines. (a) An entity accredited under ISO 14065; or
(b) A DOE of the CDM
Any standard or guidelines for it?
  • Approved JCM methodology
  • JCM Guidelines for Developing PDD and Monitoring Report
  • JCM Guidelines for Validation and Verification

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