Climate and Energy

Asian Regional Knowledge Sharing Workshop on International Market Mechanisms and Transparency under the Paris Agreement

With the support of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan (MOEJ), IGES in collaboration with the UNFCCC-IGES Regional Collaboration Centre (RCC) for Asia and the Pacific organised the “Asian Regional Knowledge Sharing Workshop on International Market Mechanisms and Transparency under the Paris Agreement” on 28-30 January 2019 in Bangkok, Thailand. Policy makers and negotiators from six partner countries, notably Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Thailand and Vietnam, and other invited experts shared their experience with reporting, including the use of international market mechanisms. They learned from each other about how to improve reporting over time, in accordance with modalities, procedures and guidelines (MPGs) for the transparency framework, which were adopted at COP24 in December, 2018, under the Paris Agreement. The workshop also provided training for the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for GHG inventories, offered by experts from the Technical Support Unit for IPCC Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.


After a variety of presentations from country representatives, experts, and intensive discussions through group exercises, IGES identified the following key findings:

  • 1. Countries clearly improved their GHG inventory reporting through enhanced institutional arrangements and technical knowledge. Even though the MPGs for the transparency framework set more stringent requirements for developing countries than now, it is likely that many of them are willing to do the best that they can to meet those requirements. Moreover, some of them are already at the stage of improving the “quality” of inventories (e.g. development of country-specific emission factors).
  • 2. One of the key challenges for countries without adequate capacity is whether they can submit biennial transparency reports (BTRs) every two years on a regular basis. It seems that other provisions are considered less problematic for most countries, including the latest reporting year as being two to three years prior to the submission year, and reporting of consistent annual time-series data.
  • 3. It was encouraging to observe that many good practices can be shared between the countries which have improved reporting capacity and those which are building their capacity in the region. These included an IT-based GHG inventory management system and technical assistance for analysing the existing gaps in reporting.
  • 4. There are methods, and corresponding adjustments, to implement in order to ensure robust accounting, including the avoidance of double counting. Depending on the types of NDCs and their timeframes, combinations of methods, that transfer and use country Parties, can be complex. Countries that intend to engage with international market mechanisms should understand how corresponding adjustments can be made, and their consequences.
  • 5. It is likely that countries with an NDC target of quantified emissions reduction intend to use national emissions as the main indicator, and national GHG inventories as the main source of data. Some of them are/plan to develop institutional arrangements for tracking progress of NDCs, besides those for GHG inventory compilation.
  • 6. Some countries are developing systems to collect information on support needed and received in a systematic manner. However, challenges include lack of a clear definition of “climate change” support within the more broadly defined environmental support; lack of means to validate collected information; lack of methodologies for estimating impacts of use of support; and lack of guidance on how information will eventually be used, and for what purposes, by the international community.

Date 28-30 January 2019
Venue VIE Hotel Bangkok 17, 39-40 Phayathai Rd, Khwaeng Thanon Phetchaburi, Khet Ratchathewi, Krung Thep Maha Nakhon
Organisers Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)
UNFCCC-IGES Regional Collaboration Centre (RCC) for Asia and the Pacific
Language English
Number of participants Approx. 30
Programme Agenda(208KB)

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