| On July 19 - 20, 2006, the Institute for Global Environmental
Strategies (IGES), Hayama, Japan held a multi-stakeholder consultation meeting
on climate regime beyond 2012 for South East Asia in Bangkok, Thailand,
in cooperation with the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for
Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP). Some 70 representatives from Southeast Asia
attended, including policy-makers, industry representatives, academic experts,
and NGO representatives from Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar,
the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and Japan.
This consultation was organised as a part of "the Asia-Pacific
consultations on climate regime beyond 2012", initiated in 2005.
The goals are to promote new and constructive thinking in the Asia-Pacific
on the future actions against climate change beyond 2012, and to
contribute to the shaping of a future climate regime that adequately
reflects the concerns
and developmental aspirations of countries in the region.
The consultations in 2006 aim to promote further discussion on
four themes: (a) energy security and development needs, (b) the clean development
mechanism, (c) technology development and transfer, and (d) adaptation to
climate change, and are being held on a sub-regional basis. The consultations
for Northeast Asia were held in Beijing on 3 and 4 July. Similar consultations
will be held in Delhi on 9 and 10 August for South Asia.
Please refer to the appended materials for a preliminary summary of the consultations.
||In 2005, IGES conducted region-wide
and national consultations in China, India, Indonesia,
Japan, Republic of Korea
and Viet Nam in order to ascertain Asian concerns, interests
and priorities for the future climate regime. The outcomes
were published as a report entitled, "Asian Perspectives
on Climate Regime Beyond 2012: Concerns, Interests and
Priorities" and disseminated at UNFCCC COP11 and
the 14th UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-14).
For enquiries about this press release please contact:
Dr. Ancha Srinivasan, Principal Researcher,
Climate Policy Project
The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)
Tel: +81-46-855-3818 Fax: +81-46-855-3809
Ms. Kido, PR Officer,
The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)
2108-11 Kamiyamaguchi, Hayama, Kanagawa, 240-0115 Japan
Tel: +81-46-855-3700 Fax: +81-46-855-3709
1. A Preliminary Summary of Consultations
(1) Energy Security, Development, and Climate Policy
||Following a steep rise in crude oil prices, energy
security has become an issue of major concern for Southeast Asian
countries. In particular, because of the strong correlation between
greenhouse gas emissions and energy production and consumption,
Asian countries that are experiencing rapid population growth and
remarkable economic growth rates need to integrate energy policies
and climate change policies.
||Asian countries should design policies that encourage
renewable energy development and energy efficiency enhancement
in order to achieve both goals of enhancing energy security and
reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
||As poverty eradication is a major concern for
many developing countries, securing affordable energy supply for
the lower-economic classes remains an important challenge. Until
now, poverty reduction measures and climate change policies have
not been discussed together. Future climate regime discussions
should promote initiatives that link these two issues.
||Developing Asia continues to face problems in
access to technology and finance for promotion of renewable energy
and energy efficiency. Developing countries may first identify
technologies that they already possess or that can be shared in
the region, and promote their further deployment and utilisation.
(2) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
||The CDM is expected to reduce GHG emissions while
contributing to sustainable development in developing countries.
In order for the CDM to be effectively implemented, a long-term
agreement for continuity of CDM beyond 2012 is urgently necessary.
||To promote CDM implementation in the Least developed
countries (LDCs), in addition to streamlining CDM procedures, developed
countries should create reserve funds to support projects. However,
careful consideration must be given to relaxation of conditions
for CDM additionality.
||Participants discussed the prospects for adoption
of unilateral CDM linked with a certified emission reduction (CER)
discounting scheme. However, there is a concern that several developing
countries cannot implement unilateral CDM projects on their own
due to a lack of necessary finance.
||Sector/programme-based CDM attracted considerable
attention but participants felt that it requires further study
on additionality, monitoring and validation of emission reductions
from such projects.
(3) Climate-friendly Technology Development and Transfer
||Further technological development is indispensable
to achieve the ultimate goal of the United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and member states must promote dissemination
of technologies at a domestic level within developing countries
while further encouraging technology transfer both among developing
countries and between developed and developing countries. Moreover,
appropriate measures must be taken to promote the use of technologies
that developing countries already possess. (Unilateral CDM activities
were discussed as one such measure.)
||Participants noted that market-driven technology
transfers can be promoted within the framework of international
trade regime such as the World Trade Organisation (WTO). On the
other hand, UNFCCC processes may enable transfer of technologies
that are not commercially viable. Participants noted that both
processes can complement each other.
||Developed country governments can play a catalytic
role in dissemination of climate-friendly technologies through
promoting cooperation with public research institutions in developing
countries, while the developing country governments can encourage
participation of the private sector through introducing favourable
||Developing countries need to leapfrog through
stages of technological development in order to reduce GHG emissions.
At the same time, they must also acquire capacity to manage, operate,
and maintain such new technologies. For this reason, a realistic
way is to adopt a case-by-case approach in moving through each
stage of technological development.
||Adopting similar international technology standards
in all countries was considered impractical since such standards
may not accurately reflect the circumstances of each country. However,
some participants pointed out that establishing international technology
standards in areas such as consumer electronics and transportation
may be useful, where the project-based CDM is not yet effective.
Some participants felt that it would be beneficial for countries
in the region to exchange information on technology standards.
(4) Adaptation to Climate Change
||International discussions on adaptation to climate
change are much less advanced than those on GHG mitigation. In
many Southeast Asian countries, disasters relating to climate change
have already manifested, making efforts to tackle climate change
all the more urgent.
||The current international mechanisms for facilitating
adaptation to climate change suffer from a number of problems,
including the lack of adequate financial support and complexity
of rules to access funding. For instance, the current eligibility
screening under the Global Environment Facility (GEF) strictly
separates "adaptation" related projects from "development" related
ones. However, both types of projects are closely linked and it
is rather difficult to make such distinctions in many countries.
||Differences exist across nations in the region
in the way they respond to adaptation to climate change. While
some countries are responding positively by establishing domestic
funding and government policies to promote adaptation, many countries
have not established mechanisms to assess the current and future
impacts of climate change mainly due to lack of domestic scientific
capacity on adaptation issues. For this reason, inter-regional
and bilateral cooperation is urgently needed. Moreover, it is important
for each country to study measures for effective utilisation of
Official Development Assistance (ODA) and to mainstream adaptation
concerns in national development planning.
||Participants noted that both national and international
public-private partnerships must be promoted to encourage the disclosure,
development, and dissemination of technologies to facilitate adaptation
to climate change. Further, it was felt necessary to create appropriate
incentives for more active involvement of the private sector in
2. Future issues
The consultations highlighted the need for international cooperation in linking
sustainable development - including poverty-reduction - with climate change issues
in developing countries. It is therefore of crucial importance for Asia that
the opinions and issues brought up in the consultations pertaining to development,
energy security, technology development and technology transfer, CDM, and adaptation,
be thoroughly explored, with the views reflected in a future framework that addresses
Asian concerns much more effectively than before.